How the world's first metro system was built - Christian Wolmar

Important Vocabulary Words From The Video


To scoff is to make a loud, contemptuous sound. When the professor scoffed at the student's idea, she was very judgmental and dismissive.

  • The professor scoffed when the student mentioned the idea of going on a field trip.
  • The student scoffed when the professor said that the idea was too ridiculous to be considered.

To venture is to take a risk. When you venture into a new business or field, you are putting your trust in the unknown.

  • He ventured into the dangerous waters to rescue the dog.
  • She ventured into the dark woods to buy some milk.

Gridlock is a situation in which there is a lot of traffic on the road, and it's impossible to move forward or backward. This can happen because there is a traffic jam, or because the roads are too narrow for the traffic to pass.

  • The gridlock on the highway caused by the storm was terrible.
  • The gridlock on the highway caused by the protesters was even worse.

To lobby is to try to persuade someone to change their mind about something. You might lobby the government to change the laws, or you might lobby a company to change their policies.

  • The company lobbied the government to change the laws so that they would have more control over the market.
  • The politician lobbied the company to change their policy, and they agreed to do so.

When you see an archway, you are probably looking at a structure that is used to connect two parts of a building. Arches are often used in architecture to make the structure look taller.

  • The archways are a beautiful addition to the garden.
  • The archways lead to the main entrance of the palace.

A rainstorm is a type of storm that is caused by rain. Rainstorms can be mild or severe, but they all have one thing in common: they cause a lot of water to fall from the sky.

  • The rainstorm is causing a lot of flooding, so be careful where you go.
  • The rainstorm is causing a lot of traffic problems, so be careful when you're driving.

An embankment is a bank or slope of earth that is used to protect a river or other body of water from flooding. They are often made from earth, rocks, or concrete.

  • The embankment was badly damaged in the storm, and the water was flooding into the town.
  • The embankment was built to protect the town from flooding.

To burrow is to go underground. Some animals, like worms, burrow into the ground to find food.

  • The worm was burrowing through the mud.
  • The animals were burrowing into the ground to escape the heat.

Subway is an abbreviation for "Subway system." A subway system is a network of underground train stations that runs throughout a city or town.

  • He lives close to the subway, so he uses it to commute to work every day.
  • The subway is very crowded today, because it's rush hour.